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The globally accepted definition within the International Federation Red Cross and Red Crescent network for livelihoods is the following:

"Livelihoods comprise the capabilities, assets and activities required for generating income and securing a means of living. Sustainable livelihoods refer to people's capacity to generate and maintain their means of living, and enhance their own well-being as well as that of future generations." (IFRC guidelines for livelihoods programming, 2011)

A part of this term is needed to compile the most common key terms and concepts regarding livelihood interventions. The sources for these terms come from a wide range of publications and especially the definitions generated within the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.

Missing a definition?, key term?, concept?. Help us increase our lexicon by sending your contribution to livelihoods@cruzroja.es

  • Accountability

    Explaining decisions, actions or use of money to stakeholders.

    Referencia:[Monitoring and Evaluation in a nutshell, IFRC, 2007]

  • Assessment

    Action aimed at understanding a situation in order to identify the problem(s), the source of the problem(s), and the consequences of the problem(s).

    Referencia:[Guidelines for cash transfer programming, IFRC/ICRC, 2007]

  • Baseline Data

    Baseline data are initial information collected during an assessment. Baseline data include facts, numbers and description and permit the measurement of the impact of project implemented by comparing the situation that existed before and after project implementation.

    Referencia:[Guidelines for cash transfer programming, IFRC/ICRC, 2007]

  • Basic needs

    The items that people need to survive. This can include safe access to essential goods and services such a food, water, shelter, clothing, health care, sanitation and education.

    Referencia:[Guidelines for cash transfer programming, IFRC/ICRC, 2007]

  • Cash grant/ cash transfer

    Provision of money to targeted households or persons, given without any requirement to work. Can be given as emergency relief, for support to livelihood recovery, or as a social safety net. See also conditional cash grant.

    Referencia:[Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis Toolkit. 2010]

  • Commodity or Cash Voucher

    Commodity vouchers stipulate the items (and their amount/weight) or services for which the recipient can exchange their voucher. Cash vouchers have a specific value and can define a service and an item or a range of items for which the voucher can be exchanged.

    Referencia:[Guidelines for cash transfer programming, IFRC/ICRC, 2007]

  • Conditional cash transfer

    "Receipt of the cash transfer is conditional upon the beneficiary providing a service of some kind (such as work); on using a service such as attending a school or health clinic; or spending the transfer on an agreed commodity or type of commodity, such a shelter or restarting a business. "

    Referencia:[Guidelines for cash transfer programming, IFRC/ICRC, 2007]

  • Copying Strategies

    Term commonly used to describe short-term, temporary responses to declining access to food and income. In other words, they are strategies different to those normally used to access food and income, which indicate that households are struggling to get the resources they need to meet their immediate needs and to protect their livelihoods.

    Referencia:[Household Economic Security (HES) Technical Guidelines for Assessment Analysis and Programme Design - British Red Cross, 2010]

  • Early Recovery

    Early recovery refers to recovery assessment, planning and implementation of activities designed to strengthen and impact of our relief interventions and support disaster-affected people through the first few months following a disaster (relief to recovery transition).

    Referencia:[Guidelines for Livelihoods Programming, IFRC, 2011]

  • Economic security

    Economic security is 'the condition of an individual, household or community that is able to cover its essential (economic) needs (including food) and unavoidable expenditures in a sustainable manner, according to its cultural standards'.

    Referencia:[Household Economic Security (HES) Technical Guidelines for Assessment Analysis and Programme Design - British Red Cross, 2010 based on Micro-Economic Initiatives, ICRC, 2009]

  • Economic self-sufficiency

    Economic self-sufficiency implies that each individual has the means to insure sufficient revenue and increasing stability. That every member of the most vulnerable groups has a secure and sufficiently remunerated occupational activity as soon as possible.

    Referencia:[Spanish Red Cross Guidelines on Economics Development, 2010]

  • Evaluation

    The systematic and objective assessment of an ongoing or completed operation, programme or policy, its design, implementation and results. The aim is to determine the relevance and fulfilment of objectives, as well as efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability.

    Referencia:[Guidelines for cash transfer programming, IFRC/ICRC, 2007]

  • Financial viability

    The ability of a business to cover its costs with earned revenue.

    Referencia:[Micro-Economic Initiatives, ICRC, 2009]

  • Focus group discussion

    Focus group discussions are organized with a selected group of knowledgeable individuals in a community to gain information about their views and experiences of a topic. They are particularly suited for obtaining several perspectives about the same topic.

    Referencia:[Guidelines for cash transfer programming, IFRC/ICRC, 2007]

  • Food security

    A person household or community, region or nation is food secure when all members at all times have physical, social and economic access to buy, produce, obtain or consume sufficient, safe and nutritious food to met their dietary needs and food preferences for a healthy and active life.

    Referencia:[Global food security assessment guidelines, IFRC 2007]

  • Gender

    Gender refers to the social differences between females and males that are learned, and though deeply rooted in every culture, are changeable over time. Gender differences have wide variations both within and between cultures. Along with class and race, they determine the roles, power and resources for females and males in any society.

    Referencia:[Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis]

  • Gender analysis

    Analysis that examines the relationships between females and males and their access to and control of resources, their roles and the constraints they face relative to each other. Gender analysis should be integrated into humanitarian needs assessments and all sector assessments or situational analyses to ensure that gender-based injustices and inequalities are not exacerbated by humanitarian interventions and that where possible greater equality and justice in gender relations are promoted.

    Referencia:[Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis]

  • Gender mainstreaming

    A strategy for ensuring that women's as well as men's concerns and experiences are an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of legislation, policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres. It is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action in all areas and at all levels, so that women and men benefit equally, and inequality is not perpetuated.

    Referencia:[Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis]

  • Group assets

    Assets owned formally or informally by a group of individuals engaged together in a business or livelihood activity. Examples of typical group-managed assets include irrigation systems, agricultural machinery, packaging equipment, warehouses, and generators. Group asset transfers tend to be larger in scale (value and size) than individual asset transfers, thus additional attention prior to transfer must be given to evaluating local market impact and implications.

    Referencia:[Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis]

  • Household

    Members of the same family unit sharing a common income/expenditure pot. (N.B. this definition may vary from context to context.)

    Referencia:[Guidelines for cash transfer programming, IFRC/ICRC, 2007]